Shining Rewards

The Value of Rooftop Solar Power for Consumers and Society

Solar energy is on the rise in the United States. Through September 2016, more than 31 gigawatts of solar electric capacity had been installed around the country, enough to power more than 6 million homes. The rapid growth of solar energy in the United States is the result of forward-looking policies that are helping the nation reduce its contribution to global warming and expand its use of local renewable energy sources. 


Solar energy is on the rise in the United States. Through September 2016, more than 31 gigawatts of solar electric capacity had been installed around the country, enough to power more than 6 million homes. The rapid growth of solar energy in the United States is the result of forward-looking policies that are helping the nation reduce its contribution to global warming and expand its use of local renewable energy sources.

One policy in particular, net energy metering, has been instrumental in the growth of solar energy, particularly on homes and small businesses. Net energy metering enables solar panel owners to earn fair compensation for the benefits they provide to other users of the electricity grid, and makes “going solar” an affordable option for more people. Net energy metering works by providing customers a credit on their electric bill that offsets charges for energy consumption. As solar energy has taken off in recent years, however, utilities and other special interests have increasingly attacked net metering as an unjustified “subsidy” to solar users.

A review of 16 recent analyses shows that individuals and businesses that decide to “go solar” generally deliver greater benefits to the grid and society than they receive through net metering. Decision-makers should recognize the great value delivered by distributed solar energy by preserving and expanding access to net metering and other programs that ensure fair compensation to Americans who install solar energy.

Net metering is not a new idea. It has been the policy in some states for more than 30 years. The concept has been tested in the courts and in regulatory proceedings in the states and at federal agencies like the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the Internal Revenue Service. Net metering is the law of the land in 41 states today.

Net metering has been critical to solar energy’s rapid expansion in the United States.

  • Net metering offsets costs for solar panel owners and credits them for providing excess power to the grid at a set price, usually at the same retail price they pay to buy electricity.
  • Net metering is conceptually simple (it essentially allows consumers to run their electric meters backwards), easy to administer, requires a minimum of utility system investment, and ensures that customers receive compensation that tracks with electricity prices over time.
  • Net metering also makes solar energy more economically attractive for residents and businesses, and accessible and affordable to low and middle income Americans.

Solar energy creates many benefits for the electricity grid.

  • Avoided energy costs: Solar energy systems produce clean, renewable electricity on-site, reducing the amount of electricity utilities must generate or purchase from fossil fuel-fired power plants. In addition, solar photovoltaic (PV) systems reduce the amount of energy lost in generation, long-distance transmission and distribution, which cost U.S. ratepayers about $21 billion in 2014.
  • Avoided capital and capacity investment: By reducing overall demand for electricity during high-load daytime hours that form the peak period for most utilities, solar energy production helps ratepayers and utilities avoid the cost of investing in new power plants, transmission lines, distribution capacity, and other forms of electricity infrastructure.
  • Reduced financial risks and electricity prices: Because the price of solar energy tends to be stable over time, while the price of fossil fuels can fluctuate sharply, integrating more solar energy into the grid reduces consumers’ exposure to volatile fossil fuel prices. Also, by reducing demand for energy from the grid, solar PV systems reduce its price, saving money for all ratepayers.
  • Increased grid resiliency: Increasing distributed solar PV decentralizes the grid, potentially safeguarding people in one region from other areas that are experiencing problems. Emerging technologies, including smart meters and small-scale battery storage systems, will enhance this value.
  • Avoided environmental compliance costs: Increasing solar energy capacity helps utilities avoid the costs of installing new technologies to clean up fossil fuel-fired power plants or meeting renewable energy requirements, and avoid the cost of emission allowances where pollution is capped.

Solar energy also creates valuable benefits for the environment and society at large.

  • Avoided greenhouse gas emissions: In 2014, the electricity sector was the largest source of global warming emissions—responsible for 30 percent of all total U.S. greenhouse gas pollution. Generating energy from the sun provides a renewable source of energy that produces no greenhouse gas emissions. In 2015, distributed solar energy alone – just solar panels on households and businesses – averted approximately 8 million metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions.
  • Reduces air pollution that harms public health: According to the American Lung Association, 44 percent of Americans live in a place where pollution often reaches dangerous levels. Expanding the nation’s ability to obtain clean electricity from the sun reduces our dependence on fossil fuels, and lessens the amount of harmful emissions that flow into the air we breathe.
  • Creates jobs and spurs local economies: The American solar energy industry is growing rapidly, creating new jobs and businesses across the nation. In 2015, the solar energy industry added jobs at a rate 12 times that of the overall economy, and as of November 2015 employed more than 208,000 people.

The benefits solar homeowners provide to the grid, and to society generally, are often worth more than the benefits they receive through net metering.

  • All 16 analyses reviewed here found that solar energy brought net benefits to the grid.
  • 12 analyses out of 16 found that the value of solar energy was worth more than the average residential retail electricity rate in the area at the time the analysis was conducted. Three of the four analyses that found different results were commissioned by utilities. (See Figure ES 1.)
  • Of these 16 analyses, the median value of rooftop solar energy was 16.35 cents per kWh, while the average residential retail electricity rate in included states was 13.05 cents per kWh.
  • The studies that estimated lower values for solar energy often undervalued, or did not include, important environmental and societal benefits that come from generating electricity from the sun.

Figure ES-1: Retail Electricity Rates and the Values of Solar Energy in 16 Cost-Benefit Analyses.


Net metering policies have been critical to the growth of solar energy in the United States. To maintain America’s momentum toward a clean energy future, policy-makers should continue and expand net metering policies. Specifically:

  • States should lift arbitrary caps that limit availability of net metering in fast-growing solar markets.
  • State or local governments that evaluate the benefits and costs of net metering should include a full range of benefits of solar energy, including environmental and societal benefits.
  • State and local governments should consider the simplicity of net metering when evaluating programs that compensate customers for the solar electricity they provide to the grid.
  • State and local governments should reject alternatives to net metering that do not provide residential and business customers full and fair compensation that reflects all the benefits that they provide.
  • State and local governments should ensure that all people can take advantage of net metering policies, including multifamily homes or homes without sunny roofs, by implementing virtual net metering programs.

Figure ES-2: A Comparison of Cost-Benefit Analyses of Solar Energy by Study and Category.