Renewable Energy 101

Acknowledgements and sources
Last updated: 10/10/2018

Authors

Abigail Bradford, Frontier Group
Bronte Payne, Jake Taber and Rob Sargent, Environment America Research & Policy Center

Acknowledgments

Environment America Research & Policy Center thanks Janna Cohen-Rosenthal, formerly of Second Nature, Mark Jacobson of Stanford University, John Gingrich of EnergySage, David Lis of Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships (NEEP), Asa Hopkins of Synapse Energy Economics, Inc., Vince Martinez of Architecture 2030, Stephanie McClellan of University of Delaware, Ali Rotatori of Rocky Mountain Institute, and Sarah Zemanick of Cornell University for their review of drafts of this document, as well as their insights and suggestions. We also wish to thank the representatives from campuses highlighted in this document that provided information or review. Thanks also to Katherine Eshel for authoring the original version of this report and to Tony Dutzik of Frontier Group for editorial support.

Environment America Research & Policy Center thanks the John Merck Fund, the Scherman Foundation, the Energy Foundation, and the Turner Foundation for making this report possible. The authors bear responsibility for any factual errors. The recommendations are those of Environment America Research & Policy Center. The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of our funders or those who provided review. 2018 Environment America Research & Policy Center. Some Rights Reserved. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives 3.0 Unported License. To view the terms of this license, visit creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0.

Environment America Research & Policy Center is a 501(c)(3) organization. We are dedicated to protecting our air, water and open spaces. We investigate problems, craft solutions, educate the public and decision-makers, and help the public make their voices heard in local, state and national debates over the quality of our environment and our lives. For more information about Environment America Research & Policy Center or for additional copies of this report, please visit www.environmentamericacenter.org.

Frontier Group provides information and ideas to help citizens build a cleaner, healthier, and more democratic America. We address issues that will define our nation’s course in the 21st century – from fracking to solar energy, global warming to transportation, clean water to clean elections. Our experts and writers deliver timely research and analysis that is accessible to the public, applying insights gleaned from a variety of disciplines to arrive at new ideas for solving pressing problems. For more information about Frontier Group, please visit www.frontiergroup.org.

Sources

[1] Rob Sargent and Bret Fanshaw of Environment America Research & Policy Center and Gideon Weissman of Frontier Group, Renewables on the Rise, 25 July 2017.

[2] Studies detailing high or 100 percent renewable energy scenarios include:

·       Christian Breyer et al., “On the Role of Solar Photovoltaics in Global Energy Transition Scenarios,” Progress in Photovoltaics Research and Applications, DOI: 10.1002/pip.2885, May 2017.

·       Cory Budischak, “Cost-minimized Combinations of Wind Power, Solar Power and Electrochemical Storage, Powering the Grid up to 99.9% of the Time,” Journal of Power Sources, 225: 60-74, 1 March 2013.

·       M.M. Hand et al., National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Renewable Electricity Futures Study, December 2012.

·       Mark Jacobson et al., “100% Clean and Renewable Wind, Water, and Sunlight (WWS) All-sector Energy Roadmaps for the 50 United States,” Energy & Environmental Science, 8:2093, DOI: 10.1039/ C5EE01283J, 27 May 2015.

[3] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Estimated U.S. Energy Consumption in 2017: 97.7 Quads, April 2018.

[4] E Source Companies, Managing Energy Costs in Colleges and Universities (fact sheet), archived 22 September 2017 at web.archive.org/web/20170922135424/https://bea.touchstoneenergy.com/sites/beabea/files/PDF/Sector/Colleges-Universities.pdf.

[5] 60 percent wasted: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Estimated U.S. Energy Use in 2014: ~98.3 Quads (infographic), March 2014; potential energy reduction: John A. “Skip” Laitner et al., American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, The Long-Term Energy Efficiency Potential: What the Evidence Suggests, 11 January 2012.

[6] Georgia Tech Campus Sustainability, Buildings, archived 17 August 2018 at http://web.archive.org/web/20180817144155/http://www.sustain.gatech.edu/....

[7] Better Buildings, U.S. Department of Energy, Higher Education, accessed 17 August 2018, archived at http://web.archive.org/save/https://betterbuildingsinitiative.energy.gov....

[8] U.S. Department of Energy, Better Buildings, Allegheny College, accessed 26 September 2018, archived at http://web.archive.org/web/20180926214044/https://betterbuildingsinitiat....

[9] U.S. Department of Energy, Better Buildings, Successful Strategies Driving Innovation & Results, Progress Report, 2017, available at https://betterbuildingssolutioncenter.energy.gov/sites/default/files/attachments/Better_Buildings_Progress_Report_2017.pdf.

[10] Allegheny College, Environmental Science and Sustainability, accessed 26 September 2018, archived at http://web.archive.org/web/20180926214433/https://sites.allegheny.edu/en....

[11] Gary Johnson, “Students Pleased with New North Village Residence Halls,” Meadville Tribune, 31 August 2006, archived at web.archive.org/web/2/http://www.meadvilletribune.com/archives/students-pleased-with-new-north-village-residence-halls/article_dcb5bc6e-676c-5f74-9bf1-4c39dac2e214.html; Allegheny College, Allegheny College’s North Village II Residence Hall Achieves LEED Gold Certification for Sustainability (news release), 21 January 2011, archived at web.archive.org/web/20170922135602/http://sites.allegheny.edu/news/2011/01/21/allegheny-colleges-north-village-ii-residence-hall-achieves-leed-gold-certification-for-sustainability/.

[12] Ibid.

[13] Georgetown University, Energy Conservation and Efficiency, accessed 26 September 2018, archived at http://web.archive.org/web/20180926214730/https://sustainability.georget....

[14] Georgetown University, SIPS Fund, About Us, accessed 26 September 2018, available at http://sips.georgetown.edu/about.

[15] Georgetown University, Sustainability at Georgetown University: Energy Conservation and Efficiency, archived at web.archive.org/web/20170207233131/https://sustainability.georgetown.edu/energyefficiency; U.S. EPA, Greenhouse Gas Equivalencies Calculator, available at https://www.epa.gov/energy/greenhouse-gas-equivalencies-calculator.

[16] McKinsey & Company, Unlocking Energy Efficiency in the U.S. Economy, 2009.

[17] Corinna Fischer, “Feedback on Household Electricity Consumption: A Tool for Saving Energy?,” Energy Efficiency, 1(1):79-104, 2008.

[18] John E. Petersen, “Dormitory Residents Reduce Electricity Consumption When Exposed to Real-Time Visual Feedback and Incentives,” International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 8(1):16-33, 2007.

[19] Alliance to Save Energy, 2012 Campus Conservation Nationals: Green Campus Students Win Big by Saving Energy (news release), 27 April 2012, archived at web.archive.org/web/20170727172923/http://www.ase.org/resources/2012-campus-conservation-nationals-green-campus-students-win-big-saving-energy.

[20] University at Albany, Energy Campaign, accessed 26 September 2018, available at  https://www.albany.edu/gogreen/4.energycampaign.shtml.

[21] University of Albany, How We Saved $70,000+ through a Behavioral Energy Conservation Competition (presentation), 2016, archived at web.archive.org/web/20170727173012/https://sites.newpaltz.edu/sustainability/wp-content/uploads/sites/11/2016/07/UAlbany-Energy-Campaign.pdf.

[22] University at Albany, Campus Sustainability Efforts Reduce Energy Costs by $319,000 (press release), 5 February 2010, available at https://www.albany.edu/news/release_8811.php.

[23] University of Albany, Energy Campaign, archived 27 July 2017 at web.archive.org/web/20170727173130/http://www.albany.edu/gogreen/4.energycampaign.shtml.

[24] Harvard University Sustainability, Green Labs, available at https://green.harvard.edu/programs/green-labs.

[25] Harvard Office for Sustainability, Reducing Laboratory Energy Use through Data-Driven Behavior Change Campaigns, 2016.

[26] Harvard Office for Sustainability, Undergraduate Resource Efficiency Program, accessed 27 July 2017 at green.harvard.edu/programs/undergraduate-resource-efficiency-program.

[27] Ibid.

[28] Anthony Lopez et al., National Renewable Energy Laboratory, U.S. Renewable Energy Technical Potentials: A GIS-Based Analysis, July 2012.

[29] Kyle Pennell, “Why Did Solar Get So Cheap in the Last 20 Years?,” Unplugged, 18 January 2018, available at https://www.ohmconnect.com/blog-post/why-did-solar-get-so-cheap-in-the-last-20-years.

[30] University of Delaware, IEC History, archived 27 June 2017 at web.archive.org/web/20170627220024/https://www1.udel.edu/iec/history.html.

[31] Solar Power Is the Future, Problems with Solar Energy – Why It Is Not More Widely Used, accessed 10 July 2017, archived at web.archive.org/web/20170710183110/http://www.solarpoweristhefuture.com/problems-with-solar-energy.shtml.

[32] Penn State University, Penn State News, “High-efficiency Concentrating Solar Cells Move to the Rooftop,” 5 February 2015, archived at web.archive.org/web/20170727172515/http://news.psu.edu/story/343520/2015/02/05/research/high-efficiency-concentrating-solar-cells-move-rooftop.

[33] U.S. Department of Energy, Clean Renewable Energy Bonds, accessed 17 September 2018, archived at http://web.archive.org/web/20180917115859/https://www.energy.gov/savings/clean-renewable-energy-bonds-crebs.

[34] Lisa Delaby, Director of Institutional Advancement, Butte College, personal communication, 28 September 2017.

[35] Arizona State University, Solar Initiatives, accessed 26 September 2018, archived at http://web.archive.org/web/20180926190941/https://tours.asu.edu/sustaina....

[36] Arizona State University, ASU Solar, accessed 26 September 2018, archived at http://web.archive.org/web/20180926191115/https://cfo.asu.edu/solar.

[37] Arizona State University, Redrock Solar Project, accessed 26 September 2018, archived at http://web.archive.org/web/20180926191245/https://cfo.asu.edu/red-rock-s....

[38] See note 35.

[39] American Wind Energy Association, Wind Energy Reduces Greenhouse Gas Emissions, accessed 21 September 2017 at www.awea.org/reducing-greenhouse-gas-emissions; Statista, U.S. Automobile Registrations in 2015, by State, archived 21 September 2017 at web.archive.org/web/20170921193350/https://www.statista.com/statistics/196010/total-number-of-registered-automobiles-in-the-us-by-state/.

[40] American Wind Energy Association, The Cost of Wind Energy in the U.S., accessed 24 July 2017 at www.awea.org/falling-wind-energy-costs.

[41] Bureau of Labor Statistics, Fastest Growing Occupations, archived 16 August 2018 at http://web.archive.org/web/20180816202156/https://www.bls.gov/ooh/fastes....

[42] Kathie Zipp, “Ohio Universities Use DOE Software to Manage Energy Use with Solar + Storage,” Solar Power World, 27 February 2017, archived at web.archive.org/web/20170727171927/https://www.solarpowerworldonline.com/2017/02/new-software-help-ohio-universities-manage-energy-use-solarstorage/.

[43] Karen B. Roberts, “Wind Turbine Turns 5,” UDaily, 31 August 2015, archived at http://web.archive.org/web/20180926191418/http://www1.udel.edu/udaily/20....

[44] Ibid.

[45] Karen B. Roberts, “Wind Turbine Turns 5,” UDaily, 31 August 2015, archived at http://web.archive.org/web/20180926191418/http://www1.udel.edu/udaily/20... U.S. EPA, Greenhouse Gas Equivalencies Calculator, available at https://www.epa.gov/energy/greenhouse-gas-equivalencies-calculator: 3,500: 17,500 metric tons of CO2 over 5 years = 3,500 metric tons of CO2 per year metric tons of CO2 = 749 passenger cars driven for a year.

[46] See note 30.

[47] See note 43.

[48] Carleton College, Renewable Energy, archived 22 September 2017 at web.archive.org/web/20170727171929/https://apps.carleton.edu/sustainability/campus/energy/renewable/.

[49] Carleton College, Renewable Energy, archived 22 September 2017 at web.archive.org/web/20170727171929/https://apps.carleton.edu/sustainability/campus/energy/renewable/; Carleton College, Frequently Asked Questions about Carleton’s First Wind Turbine, accessed 21 September 2017 at web.archive.org/web/20170727171939/https://apps.carleton.edu/campus/facilities/sustainability/wind_turbine/.

[50] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Greenhouse Gas Equivalencies Calculator, accessed 21 September 2017 at www.epa.gov/energy/greenhouse-gas-equivalencies-calculator.

[51] Carleton College, Carleton College Wind Turbines Project Fact Sheet (Fall 2012), 2012, archived at web.archive.org/web/20170727171932/https://apps.carleton.edu/sustainability/assets/CarletonWindTurbineFactSheet.pdf.

[52] Jim Adams, “Anniversary Gift Is about 400 Feet Tall,” Star Tribune, 16 February 2011, archived at web.archive.org/web/20170727171936/http://www.startribune.com/anniversary-gift-is-about-400-feet-tall/115986409/.

[53] Carleton College, The History of Carleton’s First Wind Turbine, accessed 27 July 2017, archived at web.archive.org/web/20170727171939/https://apps.carleton.edu/campus/facilities/sustainability/wind_turbine/.

[54] Om Malik, “Micro-Grids: Concepts and Challenges in Practical Implementation,” Smarter Grid, 2015, available at http://canrev.ieee.ca/cr73/Micro-Grids--Concept_and_Challenges_in_Practical_Implementation.pdf.

[55] Microgrid Knowledge, The Value of Energy Storage in Microgrids, 10 April 2017, archived at web.archive.org/web/20170921200659/https://microgridknowledge.com/value-energy-storage-microgrids/.

[56] “SUNY New Paltz Unveils New, State-of-the-Art Solar Energy System,” New Paltz News, 25 April 2018, available at https://sites.newpaltz.edu/news/2018/04/suny-new-paltz-unveils-new-state-of-the-art-solar-energy-system/.

[57] Ibid.

[58] Joseph Bebon, “Solar Microgrid Project Receives Top Grade At New York College Campus,” Solar Industry, 7 June 2016, available at

https://solarindustrymag.com/solar-microgrid-project-receives-top-grade-at-new-york-college-campus/.

[59] Ibid.

[60] UniEnergy Technologies, UET to Deliver ReFlex Energy Storage System to Las Positas College Microgrid, 9 December 2016, archived at web.archive.org/web/20170921201005/http://www.uetechnologies.com/news/86-las-positas-microgrid.

[61] Chabot-Las Positas Community College District, Executive Summary – Las Positas College Microgrid Automation Project, archived 21 September 2017 at web.archive.org/web/20170921201119/http://www.clpccd.org/board/documents/5.4_Battery_Grant_LPC_Executive_Summary.pdf.

[62] Ibid.

[63] Lisa Cohn, “A Blueprint for Campus Microgrids: “Internet of Energy” Project,” Microgrid Knowledge, 20 February

2015, archived at web.archive.org/web/20170922135828/https://microgridknowledge.com/blueprint-campus-microgrids-internet-energy-project/.

[64] Wolfgang Bauer, “MSU’s Solar Carport Receives the Smart Energy Decisions Onsite Renewable Energy Award,” MSU Today, 5 March 2018.

[65] National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Using Power Purchase Agreements for Solar Deployments at Universities (fact sheet), accessed 21 September 2017, archived at web.archive.org/web/20170921195648/https://www.nrel.gov/docs/gen/fy16/65567.pdf.

[66] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Higher Education Solar Development: RFPs and Contract Issues (presentation), 5 April 2016, archived at web.archive.org/web/20170921195754/https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016-06/documents/sscc_contract_issues_presentation.pdf.

[67] Anna Sewell, “Double Counting Renewable Energy Is Not Twice as Nice under Washington’s Renewable Portfolio Standard,” Earthjustice, 14 December 2015, archived at web.archive.org/web/20170921195756/https://earthjustice.org/blog/2015-december/double-counting-renewable-energy-is-not-twice-as-nice-under-washington-s-renewable-portfolio-standard.

[68] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Green Power Partner List: Georgetown, accessed 21 September 2017, archived at web.archive.org/web/20170921200055/https://www.epa.gov/greenpower/green-power-partner-list.

[69] Georgetown University, Sustainability at Georgetown University: Awards and Recognition, archived at web.archive.org/web/20170207210713/https://sustainability.georgetown.edu/about/awards.

[70] See note 68.

[71] Georgetown University, Sustainability at Georgetown University: Energy Conservation and Efficiency, archived at web.archive.org/web/20170207233131/https://sustainability.georgetown.edu/energyefficiency.

[72] U.S. EPA, 2013 Past Award Winners, EPA Green Power Purchaser Awards, accessed 26 September 2018, available at

https://www.epa.gov/greenpower/2013-past-award-winners#georgetown.

[73] Environment America, Boston University Commits to 100% Renewable Electricity (news release), 8 December 2017, available at https://environmentamerica.org/news/ame/boston-university-commits-100-renewable-electricity.

[74] Rich Barlow, “University Announces Massive Wind Power Purchase,” BUToday, 18 September 2018, available at http://www.bu.edu/today/2018/boston-university-announces-wind-power-purchase/.

[75] Boston Universisty Climate Action Plan, 2017, available at http://www.bu.edu/climateactionplan/files/2017/12/ClimateActionPlan_Report_FINAL.pdf.

[76] National Grid, Managing Energy Costs in Colleges and Universities, 2003, available at https://www9.nationalgridus.com/non_html/shared_energyeff_college.pdf.

[77] “Stanford Electrifies Its Campus, Cuts Greenhouse Gas Emissions by 65%,” Epri Journal, 17 May 2018, available at http://eprijournal.com/electric-university/.

[78] Jeff Deason et al, Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Electrification of Buildings and Industry in the United States, March 2018, available at http://eta-publications.lbl.gov/sites/default/files/electrification_of_buildings_and_industry_final_0.pdf.

[79] Ibid.

[80] Ibid.

[81] AireServ, Gas vs. Electric Heat, accessed 26 September 2018, available at https://www.aireserv.com/about/blog/2016/february/gas-vs-electric-heat/.

[82] See note 78.

[83] See note 4.

[84] See note 77.

[85] Ibid.

[86] Stanford University, “Envisioning Stanford’s Future,” Notes from the Quad, 17 May 2018, available at https://quadblog.stanford.edu/2018/05/17/envisioning-stanfords-future.

[87] Stanford University, Stanford Energy System Innovations, accessed 28 September 2018, available at http://sustainable.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/documents/Stanford_S....

[88] See note 77.

[89] Ibid.

[90] Ibid.

[91] Ibid.

[92] Green Mountain College, Renewable Heat, accessed 26 September 2018, archived at http://web.archive.org/save/www.greenmtn.edu/sustainability/sustainabili....

[93] Ibid.

[94] ENERGY STAR, Save Money and More with ENERGY STAR Solar Water Heaters, archived 21 September 2017 at web.archive.org/web/20170921194623/https://www.energystar.gov/products/water_heaters/water_heater_solar/benefits_savings.

[95] U.S. Department of Energy, Passive Solar Home Design, archived 21 September 2017 at web.archive.org/web/20170921194628/https://energy.gov/energysaver/passive-solar-home-design.

[96] U.S. Department of Energy, Project Profile: Innovative Thermal Energy Storage for Baseload Solar Power Generation, archived 21 September 2017 at web.archive.org/web/20170921194628/https://energy.gov/eere/sunshot/project-profile-innovative-thermal-energy-storage-baseload-solar-power-generation.

[97] Guilford College, Sustainability on Campus, accessed 26 September 2018, archived at http://web.archive.org/web/20180926205423/https://www.guilford.edu/who-w....

[98] Solar Server, Guilford College to Install a Campus-Wide Solar Hot Water System (news article), 21 March 2010, archived at web.archive.org/web/20170921194922/https://www.solarserver.com/solar-magazine/solar-news/archive-2010/guilford-college-to-install-campus-wide-solar-hot-water-system.html.

[99] Ibid.

[100] Ibid.

[101] Ibid.

[102] Guilford College, Sustainability on Campus, archived 27 July 2017 at web.archive.org/web/20170727171026/https://www.guilford.edu/who-we-are/social-responsibility/sustainability.

[103] Justin Catanoso, “Harvesting the Sun: N.C. Emerges as a U.S. Leader in Solar Power Investment, Energy Production,” Medium, 25 October 2014, archived at web.archive.org/web/20170921195002/https://medium.com/@justincatanoso/harvesting-the-sun-n-c-emerges-as-a-u-s-leader-in-solar-power-investment-energy-production-ee5a26d0c9ec.

[104]Gustavus Adolphus College, Gustavus Renewable Energy Projects, accessed 26 September 2018, archived at http://web.archive.org/web/20180926205536/https://gustavus.edu/johnsonce... Joel Haskard, Clean Energy Resource Teams Blog, “Gustavus Adolphus Deploys Solar Thermal Systems across Campus,” 6 November 2014, archived at web.archive.org/web/20170727171239/http://www.cleanenergyresourceteams.org/blog/gustavus-adolphus-deploys-solar-thermal-systems-across-campus.

[105] Gustavus Adolphus College, Gustavus Renewable Energy Projects, accessed 26 September 2018, archived at http://web.archive.org/web/20180926205536/https://gustavus.edu/johnsonce....

[106] Gustavus Adolphus College, Johnson Center for Environmental Innovation, accessed 26 September 2018, available at https://gustavus.edu/johnsoncenter/.

[107] Ball State University, Going Geothermal, archived at web.archive.org/web/20170131221350/https://cms.bsu.edu/en/about/geothermal/faq.

[108] Table ES-1 from Anthony Lopez et al., National Renewable Energy Laboratory, U.S. Renewable Energy Technical Potentials: A GIS-Based Analysis, July 2012, archived at web.archive.org/web/20170922134507/https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy12osti/51946.pdf.

[109] National Wildlife Federation, Going Underground on Campus: Tapping the Earth for Clean, Efficient Heating and Cooling, 2011, available at https://www.nwf.org/EcoLeaders/Campus-Ecology-Resource-Center/Reports/Go....

[110] Ibid.

[111] Ibid.

[112] Ibid.

[113] Ibid.

[114] Ball State University, Geothermal Energy System, accessed 26 September 2018, available at https://www.bsu.edu/about/geothermal; Alliance Lorneville, Assessment of Coal-Fired Boiler Air Emissions, October 2015, available at https://www.es.govt.nz/Document%20Library/Consultations/2016/Notified%20Consent%20-%20Alliance%20Group%20Ltd/Appendix%20M%20-%20Coal%20Fired%20Boiler%20Air%20Quality%20Assessment.pdf.

[115] Ball State University, Geothermal Energy System, accessed 26 September 2018, available at https://www.bsu.edu/about/geothermal.

[116] Ibid.

[117] U.S. Department of Energy, Ball State Building Massive Geothermal System, 19 March 2010, available at https://www.energy.gov/articles/ball-state-building-massive-geothermal-system.

[118] Second Nature, Purchasing Offsets through C2P2, archived 21 September 2017 at web.archive.org/web/20170921195239/http://secondnature.org/purchasing-offsets-c2p2/.

[119] Ibid.

[120] North Shore Community College, Geothermal Heating and Cooling, accessed 26 September 2018, available at http://www.northshore.edu/sustainability/zneb/about/geothermal.html.

[121] Ibid.

[122] Ibid.

[123] Ibid.

[124] Ibid.

[125] U.S. Energy Information Agency, Primary Energy Consumption by Source and Section, 2012, January 2014, available at www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/pdf/flow/primary_energy.pdf; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Fast Facts on Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions, archived 27 July 2017 at web.archive.org/web/20170727162814/https://www.epa.gov/greenvehicles/fast-facts-transportation-greenhouse-gas-emissions.

[126] Climate Solutions, Why Electric Vehicles Are a Climate Solution, March 2016, available at www.climatesolutions.org/sites/default/files/uploads/why_evs_are_a_climate_solution_final.pdf.

[127] Michael Casey, “A Surprising Benefit of Electric Cars: Cooler Cities,” CBS News, 19 March 2015, archived at web.archive.org/web/20170921201406/https://www.cbsnews.com/news/a-surprising-benefit-of-electric-cars-cooler-cities/; U.S. Department of Energy, Reducing Pollution with Electric Vehicles, archived at web.archive.org/web/20170921201510/https://energy.gov/eere/electricvehicles/reducing-pollution-electric-vehicles; U.S. Department of Energy, Fuel Prices, accessed 8 September 2017 at www.afdc.energy.gov/fuels/prices.html.

[128] Mia Yamauchi, Plugless, “Driving on Electricity Is Cheaper than Gas in All 50 States,” 2016, archived at web.archive.org/web/20170727162954/https://www.pluglesspower.com/learn/driving-electricity-cheaper-gas-50-states/.

[129] University of Michigan, U-M Battery Lab, accessed 21 September 2017 at http://energy.umich.edu/project/battlab.

[130] See note 126.

[131] Chris Welch, “Utah State University Researchers Unveil Electric Bus with Inductive Charging,” The Verge, 3 December 2012, available at www.theverge.com/2012/12/3/3721914/utah-state-university-induction-charging-bus.

[132] Keith Barry, “Induction Charging Comes to Public Transit,” Wired, 3 December 2012, archived at web.archive.org/web/20170921201632/https://www.wired.com/2012/12/induction-charging-bus/.

[133] University of California-Irvine, Big Wheels in Motion (news release), 23 January 2017, accessed at news.uci.edu/2017/01/23/big-wheels-in-motion/.

[134] Ibid.

[135] UCI, Transportation and Distribution Services, Sustainable Transportation, accessed 1 October 2018, available at https://www.parking.uci.edu/at/.

[136] See note 133.

[137] University of California-Irvine, UCI Makes Princeton Review’s Green Honor Roll for 4th Straight Year (news release), 31 August 2016, accessed at news.uci.edu/2016/08/31/uci-makes-princeton-reviews-green-honor-roll-for-4th-straight-year/.

[138] Nikki Gordon-Bloomfield, Transport Evolved, “Got an Electric Car? Going to University? Here Are the Most EV-Friendly Ones in the U.S.,” 16 September 2014, available at transportevolved.com/2014/09/16/got-electric-car-going-university-ev-friendly-ones-u-s/.

[139] Western Michigan University, Electric Vehicle Infrastructure, archived 27 July 2017 at web.archive.org/web/20170727163641/https://wmich.edu/sustainability/projects/electric-vehicles.

[140] Ibid.

[141] Ibid.

[142] Ibid.

[143] Western Michigan University, Undergraduate Catalog 2017-18, accessed 27 July 2017 at catalog.wmich.edu/.

[144] See note 125.

[145] Tom Van Heeke and Elise Sullivan, Frontier Group, and Phineas Baxandall, U.S. PIRG Education Fund, A New Course: How Innovative University Programs Are Reducing Driving on Campus and Creating New Models for Transportation Policy, February 2014, available at frontiergroup.org/sites/default/files/reports/US_A_New_Course_scrn.pdf.

[146] The League of American Bicyclists, Where We Ride: Analysis of Bicycle Commuting in American Cities, 2014, available at bikeleague.org/sites/default/files/Where_We_Ride_2014_data_web.pdf#12; Chasing Green, Promote University Campus Bike Share Program for Sustainability, 11 September 2011, archived at web.archive.org/web/20170727164019/http://www.chasinggreen.org/article/promote-university-campus-bike-share-programs-sustainability/.

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