Renewable Energy 101
Abigail Bradford, Frontier Group
Bronte Payne, Jake Taber and Rob Sargent, Environment America Research & Policy Center
Environment America Research & Policy Center thanks Janna Cohen-Rosenthal, formerly of Second Nature, Mark Jacobson of Stanford University, John Gingrich of EnergySage, David Lis of Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships (NEEP), Asa Hopkins of Synapse Energy Economics, Inc., Vince Martinez of Architecture 2030, Stephanie McClellan of University of Delaware, Ali Rotatori of Rocky Mountain Institute, and Sarah Zemanick of Cornell University for their review of drafts of this document, as well as their insights and suggestions. We also wish to thank the representatives from campuses highlighted in this document that provided information or review. Thanks also to Katherine Eshel for authoring the original version of this report and to Tony Dutzik of Frontier Group for editorial support.
Environment America Research & Policy Center thanks the John Merck Fund, the Scherman Foundation, the Energy Foundation, and the Turner Foundation for making this report possible. The authors bear responsibility for any factual errors. The recommendations are those of Environment America Research & Policy Center. The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of our funders or those who provided review. 2018 Environment America Research & Policy Center. Some Rights Reserved. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives 3.0 Unported License. To view the terms of this license, visit creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0.
Environment America Research & Policy Center is a 501(c)(3) organization. We are dedicated to protecting our air, water and open spaces. We investigate problems, craft solutions, educate the public and decision-makers, and help the public make their voices heard in local, state and national debates over the quality of our environment and our lives. For more information about Environment America Research & Policy Center or for additional copies of this report, please visit www.environmentamericacenter.org.
Frontier Group provides information and ideas to help citizens build a cleaner, healthier, and more democratic America. We address issues that will define our nation’s course in the 21st century – from fracking to solar energy, global warming to transportation, clean water to clean elections. Our experts and writers deliver timely research and analysis that is accessible to the public, applying insights gleaned from a variety of disciplines to arrive at new ideas for solving pressing problems. For more information about Frontier Group, please visit www.frontiergroup.org.
 Rob Sargent and Bret Fanshaw of Environment America Research & Policy Center and Gideon Weissman of Frontier Group, Renewables on the Rise, 25 July 2017.
 Studies detailing high or 100 percent renewable energy scenarios include:
· Christian Breyer et al., “On the Role of Solar Photovoltaics in Global Energy Transition Scenarios,” Progress in Photovoltaics Research and Applications, DOI: 10.1002/pip.2885, May 2017.
· Cory Budischak, “Cost-minimized Combinations of Wind Power, Solar Power and Electrochemical Storage, Powering the Grid up to 99.9% of the Time,” Journal of Power Sources, 225: 60-74, 1 March 2013.
· M.M. Hand et al., National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Renewable Electricity Futures Study, December 2012.
· Mark Jacobson et al., “100% Clean and Renewable Wind, Water, and Sunlight (WWS) All-sector Energy Roadmaps for the 50 United States,” Energy & Environmental Science, 8:2093, DOI: 10.1039/ C5EE01283J, 27 May 2015.
 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Estimated U.S. Energy Consumption in 2017: 97.7 Quads, April 2018.
 E Source Companies, Managing Energy Costs in Colleges and Universities (fact sheet), archived 22 September 2017 at web.archive.org/web/20170922135424/https://bea.touchstoneenergy.com/sites/beabea/files/PDF/Sector/Colleges-Universities.pdf.
 60 percent wasted: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Estimated U.S. Energy Use in 2014: ~98.3 Quads (infographic), March 2014; potential energy reduction: John A. “Skip” Laitner et al., American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, The Long-Term Energy Efficiency Potential: What the Evidence Suggests, 11 January 2012.
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 See note 35.
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 See note 30.
 See note 43.
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 See note 4.
 See note 77.
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